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How to cite the sources that you use in your work

Interviews in APA

Format for Personal Interviews:

According to section 8.7 in the APA 7th Edition, personal interviews are considered personal communications. Personal communications cannot be retrieved by readers. Therefore, they are cited in text only.

In-text format:

(F.M. Lastname of communicator, personal communication, exact date).

In-text example:

(L. MacMillan, personal communication, March 2, 2020).

Format for Published Interviews:

To cite a published interview, utilize the proper format for the reference type. 

  • If the interview appeared in an article, refer to the Articles page in this guide.
  • If found on a website, look to the Web Pages page.
  • If the interview took place on a social media platform, explore the Social Media page for the appropriate format.
  • If recorded in a video, an episode, or on YouTube, refer to the Videos page.

More information can be found in section 8.7 of the APA 7th Edition or at Purdue OWL APA Interviews.

Research Participant Interviews:

Quotations from research participants are considered part of your original research. There is no need to include them in the reference list. For more information, refer to section 8.36 in the APA 7th Edition.

Interviews in MLA

Format for Personal Interviews:

Name of interviewee. Personal interview. Date of interview.


Doe, John. Personal interview. 20 July 2019.

Format for Published Print Interviews:

Name of interviewee. "Title of interview." Title of container, By author, Volume, Issue, Publisher, Publication date, location.


Kinnell, Galway. "Galway Kinnell." I Would Lie to You if I Could: Interviews with Ten American Poets, By Chard deNiord, University of Pittsburgh Press, 2018, pp. 33-57.

Sebelius, Kathleen. "Implementing Health Care Reform - An Interview with HHS Secretary Kathleen Sebelius." The New England Journal of Medicine, By John K. Iglehart, vol. 364, no. 4, 27 Jan. 2011, DOI: 10.1056/NEJMp1014722.

Format for Broadcast Interviews:

Name of interviewee. "Title of interview". Title of television show or film series, season number, episode number, Network name, Date of broadcast.

Note: If the interview has no title, then write Interview by Interviewer's name in place of "Title of interview." 


Navalny, Alexey. Interview by Lesley Stahl. 60 Minutes, season 53, episode 7, CBS, 18 Oct. 2020.

Format for Online Interviews:

Name of Interviewee. "Title of interview." Website name, Publisher or sponsor, Publication date, URL. Date of access.


Williams, Robin. "Robin Williams: In Looking For Laughs, 'You Have to be Deeply Honest'." Fresh Air with Terry Gross, Fresh Air Archive, 12 Aug. 2014, Accessed 3 Nov. 2020.

In-Text Citations for MLA

If the interview is personal, place the author's name in parentheses (last name of interviewee):

  • (Doe)

If the interview is published in print, use the author-page style (last name of interviewee, page number if available):

  • (Kinnell 37)
  • (Sebelius)

If the interview was broadcast, streaming, or audio, use the author-timestamp style (last name of interviewee, timestamp):

  • (Navalny 00:15:36)
  • (Williams 00:40:12)