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How to cite the sources that you use in your work

Books in APA

Format for a Book in Print:

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of book: Subtitle if needed. Publisher.


Coontz, S. (2005). Marriage, a history: From obedience to intimacy or how love conquered marriage. Viking.

Format for an eBook:

Author, F. M. (Year). Title of book. Publisher. URL

Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of book [eBook edition]. Publisher. URL


Roush, C. (1999). Inside Home Depot: How one company revolutionized an industry through the relentless pursuit of growth. Jossey-Bass.

Speed, H. (2004). The practice and science of drawing. Seeley, Service & Co. Limited.

Rodriguez-Garcia, R., & White, E. M. (2005). Self-assessment in managing for results: Conducting self-assessment for development practitioners.

In-Text Citations for APA

When citing in text, provide at least the author’s last name and the date of publication. If available, provide the page number (or specific location if the source is electronic).

  • If citing a whole work: (Roush, 1999)
  • If citing a specific page: (Coontz, 2005, p. 72)

If the author's name is included in the sentence, add the date and page number if applicable:

  • Coontz explained the role obedience played in early marriages (2004).
  • Rodriguez-Garcia and White (2005, p. 5) provided a list of techniques for improving management practices.

Books in MLA

Format for a Book in Print:

Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. City of Publication, Publisher, Publication Date.

Note: Include City of Publication if the publication date is before 1900, if the publisher has offices in more than one country, or if the publisher is unknown in North America.


Johnson, Roberta. Gender and Nation in the Spanish Modernist Novel. Nashville, Vanderbilt UP, 2003. 

Format for an eBook:

Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. Version, Publisher, Publication Date.

Note: If the e-book is formatted for a reader device or service, include the format information like you would a book's edition number. Replace "e-book" with "[App/Service] ed."


Barry, John M. The Great Influenza: The Story of the Deadliest Pandemic in History. E-book, Penguin Random House LLC, 2018.

Stoker, Bram. Dracula. Kindle ed., Dover Publications, 2000. 

In-Text Citations for MLA

In-text citations are the citation reference in your paragraph where you are quoting the author.

Provide the author's last name and page number after the quote:

  • (Johnson 50)
  • (Barry 92)

If the author's name is included in the sentence, just add the page number:

  • Johnson proposed reviewing how gender and nationality intersect (50).
  • Like Barry pointed out, "the clinicians now looked to him to explain the violent symptoms," (14).