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Here you will find basic reference print and online resources for Anthropology and related fields.

Other Style Guides

See MLA, APA and other styles at our Citation Guide:

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Citing content

[Selected excerpts from the CMS, online version

Citing Journals:

Citations of journals include the volume and issue number and date of publication.

  • The volume number follows the italicized journal title in roman and with no intervening punctuation. 
  • If a journal is paginated consecutively across a volume or if the month or season appears with the year, the issue number may be omitted.
  • Include a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) if the journal lists one.
    • Blair, Walter. “Americanized Comic Braggarts.” Critical Inquiry 4, no. 2 (1977): 331–49.
    • Hait, Samik Kumar, and Satya Priya Moulik. "Determination of critical micelle concentration (CMC) of nonionic surfactants by donor-acceptor interaction with lodine and correlation of CMC with hydrophile-lipophile balance and other parameters of the surfactants." Journal of Surfactants and Detergents 4, no. 3 (2001): 303-309.


Library and other commercial databases

When citing items such as news or journal articles obtained through a third-party commercial database that archives and offers such material whether by subscription or otherwise, follow the recommendations in the sections on the applicable publication type. In addition, include a URL, but only if the database includes a recommended stable or persistent form with the document. Otherwise, include the name of the database and, in parentheses, any identification number provided with the source. For items that do not include a publication or revision date, include an access date.

  • Howard, David H. “Hospital Quality and Selective Contracting: Evidence from Kidney Transplantation.” Forum for Health Economics and Policy 11, no. 2 (2008). PubMed Central (PMC2600561).
  • Jobe, Alan H. 2006. "Mechanisms to Explain Surfactant Responses." Biology of the Neonate 89 (4): 298-302.


Article in an online journal

  • Kossinets, Gueorgi, and Duncan J. Watts. “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network.” American Journal of Sociology 115 (2009): 405–50. Accessed February 28, 2010. doi:10.1086/599247.

Article in a newspaper or popular magazine

Newspaper and magazine articles may be cited in running text (“As Sheryl Stolberg and Robert Pear noted in a New York Times article on February 27, 2010, . . .”) instead of in a note, and they are commonly omitted from a bibliography.

The following examples show the more formal versions of the citations. If you consulted the article online, include a URL; include an access date only if your publisher or discipline requires one. If no author is identified, begin the citation with the article title.

  • Mendelsohn, Daniel. “But Enough about Me.” New Yorker, January 25, 2010.
  • Stolberg, Sheryl Gay, and Robert Pear. “Wary Centrists Posing Challenge in Health Care Vote.” New York Times, February 27, 2010. Accessed February 28, 2010.


Cite a Website

A citation to website content can often be limited to a mention in the text or in a note (“As of July 19, 2008, the McDonald’s Corporation listed on its website . . .”). If a more formal citation is desired, it may be styled as in the examples below. Because such content is subject to change, include an access date or, if available, a date that the site was last modified.

  • Google. “Google Privacy Policy.” Last modified March 11, 2009.
  • McDonald’s Corporation. “McDonald’s Happy Meal Toy Safety Facts.” Accessed July 19, 2008.


Cite a Book:

A full reference must include enough information to enable a reader to locate the book.

  • Author: full name of author(s) or editor(s) or, if no author or editor is listed, name of institution standing in their place
  • Title: full title of the book, including subtitle if there is one, italicized
  • Editor, compiler, or translator, if any, if listed on title page in addition to author
  • Edition, if not the first
  • Volume, if applicable
  • Publication: city, publisher, and date
  • Page number or numbers if applicable

Cite one or multiple authors:

  • Gilbert, Elizabeth. Eat, Pray, Love: One Woman’s Search for Everything across Italy, India, and Indonesia. New York: Viking, 2006.
  • Ward, Geoffrey C., and Ken Burns. The War: An Intimate History, 1941–1945. New York: Knopf, 2007.

Chapter or other part of a book:

  • Kelly, John D. “Seeing Red: Mao Fetishism, Pax Americana, and the Moral Economy of War.” In Anthropology and Global Counterinsurgency, edited by John D. Kelly, Beatrice Jauregui, Sean T. Mitchell, and Jeremy Walton, 67–83. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010.

Notes and Bibliography

Overview [Selected excerpts from the CMS, online version

In the system favored by many writers in the humanities, bibliographic citations are provided in notes, preferably supplemented by a bibliography. The notes, whether footnotes or endnotes, are usually numbered and correspond to superscripted note reference numbers in the text; in electronic works, notes and note numbers are usually hyperlinked. If the bibliography includes all works cited in the notes, the notes need not duplicate the source information in full because readers can consult the bibliography for publication details and other information.

In works with no bibliography or only a selected list, full details must be given in a note at first mention of any work cited; subsequent citations need only include a short form. 

Full citation in a note:

1. Newton N. Minow and Craig L. LaMay, Inside the Presidential Debates: Their Improbable Past and Promising Future (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008), 24–25.

Shortened citation in a note:

  • 8. Minow and LaMay, Presidential Debates, 138.

Entry in a bibliography:

  • Minow, Newton N., and Craig L. LaMay. Inside the Presidential Debates: Their Improbable Past and Promising Future. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008.

Note citations are styled much like running text, with authors’ names in normal order and the elements separated by commas or parentheses. In bibliographies, where entries are listed alphabetically, the name of the first author is inverted, and the main elements are separated by periods.