Hint: Click on the APA Formatting and Style Guide link
In-Text Citations for APA
When citing in text, provide at least the author’s last name and the date of publication. If available, provide the page number (or specific location if the source is electronic).
If citing a whole work: (Hock, 2004)
If citing a specific page: (Hock, 2004, p. 49)
If citing an online article with no page numbers: (Church, 2006, para. 6)
If the author's name is included in the sentence, add the date and page number:
Hock described the challenge as "stressful and yet worth it," (2004).
As Smith claimed (2004, p.49) that...
Journal Articles in APA
Format for an Article from a print journal:
Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of Article. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), pages.
Moskowitz, D. S., Ho, M. R., & Turcotte-Tremblay, A. (2007). Contextual influences on interpersonal complementarity. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33(8), 1051-1063.
Note: The APA 7th Edition recommends including a DOI if available, even for a print source.
Format for an Article from an online journal:
Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, Vol.(Issue), page numbers. DOI
Stultz, J. (2006). Integrating exposure therapy and analytic therapy in trauma treatment. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 76, 482–488. doi:10.1037/0002-94126.96.36.1992
Note: If a DOI is not available, use a URL.
Van Wee, B., Geurs, K., & Chorus, C. (2013). Information, communication, travel behavior and accessibility. Journal of Transport and Land Use, 6(3), 1-16. https://www.jstor.org/stable/26202660
Personal Interviews in APA
In APA style, personal interviews, along with emails, text messages, online chats, direct messages, phone conversations, live speeches, nonarchived social media livestreams (Instagram Live, Twitter Spaces), unrecorded webinars or classroom lectures, memos, letters, nonarchived discussion board posts, etc. are all considered "personal communications".
In-Text Citation Example:
(M. Davis, personal communication, February 10, 2023)
*Because readers can't retrieve these types of personal communications, they are not included in the Reference List/Bibliography at the end of your paper, only within the text of your paper itself.